## Transformation Geometry

**Transformations**

Transformation means to change. Hence, a geometric transformation would mean to make some changes in any given geometric shape.

**Types of Transformations:**

Based on how we change a given image, there are five main transformations.

1. **Translation** happens when we move the image without changing anything in it. Hence the shape, size, and orientation remain the same.

For example:

The given shape in blue is shifted 5 units down as shown by the red arrow, and the transformed image formed is shown in maroon. Also, moving the blue shape 7 units to the right, as shown by a black arrow, gives the transformed image shown in black.

2. **Rotation** is when we rotate the image by a certain degree.

For example: On rotation of the blue image by 90º, we get the red image.

3. **Reflection** is when we flip the image along a line (the mirror line). The flipped image is also called the mirror image

For example: For the given picture with the mirror line, the blue image is one unit away from the mirror line, and the mirror image (red image) formed will also be a unit away from the mirror line.

4. **Dilation** is when the size of an image is increased or decreased without changing its shape.

For example: For the given blue image the red image will be a dilated one.

5. **Glide Reflection** is when the final image which we get from reflection is translated.

For example: Reflect the given image along the black axis and then move it 6 units down. The glide reflection of the blue image is the green image.

Fun Facts– Even after transforming a shape (translate, reflect or rotate), the angles and the lengths of the sides remain unaffected. |